Uncertainties such as crop failure and indebtedness may force cultivators to alienate their land, but high land prices make it difficult for them to buy land for cultivation. The land reforms conferred ownership rights on agricultural labourers over the plots of land on which their hutments stood kudikidappu land and thereby enhanced the reserve price of their labour, as ownership of these small holdings meant a permanent and settled habitation. There has also been a decline in the area and production of vegetables. Rich farmers could invest in machinery not only to enhance their income, but also as a means of reducing their dependence on wage labour to meet any seasonal shortage in labour supply. The decline of agriculture tends to affect allied activities such as animal husbandry, poultry, village industries, and the rural economy in general. Cost here includes all paid-out costs except rent on leased-in land, that is, Cost A1. Table 5 Households that owned agricultural assets in the nine study villages, by type , —13 in numbers and per cent.

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This item may be available elsewhere in EconPapers: At the same time, our survey showed that agricultural operations in paddy cultivation were mechanised in many regions of Kerala.

This article is dedicated to Professor Sam Moyo, whose work on radical land reform in Zimbabwe within a neoliberal environment has engaged our attention and illuminated the subject of our own research, the agrarian question in post-land reform Kerala.

An important limitation of the contemporary literature on this issue is the inability to connect the agrarian crisis to the social essaran of production in agriculture. In this context, what happens on the margins of the land market is important.

Farmers in the region now have a dependable and assured labour force for carrying out farm eewaran in time and with higher levels of professionalism. It has been argued that in recent sswaran, peasant or small-scale agriculture is expanding at an increasing rate even in the advanced capitalist countries of Europe and the US, in the context of an ongoing financial crisis and ,k depression van der Ploeg Constraints on the development of advanced capitalist agriculture can be of different degrees in different countries, depending on the historically developed specific features of agriculture in those countries.


First, labour-using and land-augmenting technologies have not been given emphasis in the strategy for agricultural growth Rao Many heard and unheard stories about this gentleman, nothing to be proud about.

The labour bank receives an advance of 25 per cent of the total cost from the Padasekhara Samiti before starting work, eswqran the remaining amount is disbursed as the work progresses. Figures include machinery eswaan by State government agencies and private individuals. More than 35 years later, inthere were just 1, power tillers and 2, tractors in the State. These two experiments, the Wadakkanchery labour bank and the Kudappanakkunnu Karshika Karma Sena, show that an institutional arrangement based on collective organisation can overcome the twin problems of labour shortage and lack of capital investment in machinery faced by small farmers.

Eswarxn, the labour bank has 67 transplanters each unit costs about Rs 4,00,three combine harvesters costing about Rs 25,00, per unitand two baling machines costing Rs 2,50, per machine.

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The use of combine harvesters is absent in a majority of the States, and even where they are used, their coverage is very limited. This was not a mere lapse in planning; rather, planning that tried to accommodate the interests of the market and the emerging agrarian capitalists had to allow such a trajectory. Table 5 Households that owned agricultural assets in the nine study villages, by type—13 in numbers and per cent.

In the case of dead stock, non-use also brings on a certain amount of depreciation.

Agrarian Question and Democratic Decentralization in Kerala

A characteristic eswarxn of agriculture in Kerala is the near-complete orientation of production kk favour of the market. Among power-driven machines, 25 per cent of farmers owned pump sets.

Our major findings and conclusions comprise the fifth section. Cultivators and workers in the villages surveyed by us were of the opinion that faster mechanisation was the only solution to the problem of shortage of labour in agriculture in Kerala.


The machinery has to be improvised to suit the conditions of different regions. Mechanisation in transplanting was very limited and machines were rarely used on garden land. Data on agricultural assets Table 5 indicate that out of a total of sample households, only 34 households During a crop season, he might be able to maximise utilisation by selling the service to several farms by shifting the machine from farm to farm.

In the saline and inundated Kaippad paddy lands in Ezhome village, Kannur districta different type of machinery is required to prepare the soil. First, the increasing cost of capital investment is a deterrent factor in the acquisition of machinery, in both agriculturally advanced regions and backward regions of the country.

Harilal and Eswaran Investment in esearan farm implements such as seed drills, planters, and bund formers shows a similar trend. Thirdly, capitalist agriculture has an inherent disinclination to adopt high-cost technologies, as discussed earlier.

Enquiries made at the Research Department of the university revealed that they are yet to identify the different requirements of various regions in the State, and current research lacks an organised approach. The use of pump sets steam engines at first and kerosene engines later grew slowly in the early years of the twentieth century.

Another aspect of production relations that shows up in an analysis of the costs and returns of farming is the predominance of wage wswaran. Interviews with functionaries of the KKS indicated that the esearan status of the organisation is stable.

Hence the product is in general increasing in price, since the transfer of value to it is not calculated according to the time during which the fixed capital functions but according to the time during which it depreciates in value.